China Si Ringan Tangan atau Lintah Darat?

Internasional, Kampartrapost.com – Menurut sebuah penelitian, China dapat memberi pinjaman dua kali lebih banyak dari pada AS dan negara-negara besar lainnya. Pinjaman ini hampir sebagian besar berasal dari bunga tinggi yang memiliki risiko tinggi dari bank milik pemerintah China.

Ini sangat mengejutkan, sebab sebelumnya China, mendapatkan bantuan dana dari negara lain. Namun, tampaknya sekarang situasi tersebut berbalik.

Melansir BBC, menurut AidData di William & Mary, sebuah universitas di negara bagian Virginia, Amerika Serikat, dalam jangka 18 tahun, China mampu memberikan pinjaman uang ke 13.427 proyek infrastruktur senilai Rp 12.067 Triliun di 165 negara.

Kebanyakan pinjaman ini diketahui berkaitan dengan program ambisius Presiden Xi Jinping, Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).

China Si Ringan Tangan atau Lintah Darat?
Sebaran proyek infrastruktur BRI dari China di dunia. Foto/BBC
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China meminjamkan uangnya dengan cara berbeda, bukannya memberikan hibah atau meminjamkan uang dari satu negara ke negara lainnya. Sebaliknya hampir semua uang tersebut didapatkan dalam bentuk pinjaman dari bank milik pemerintah China.

Pinjaman-pinjaman tersebut tidak akan muncul dalam pembukuan resmi pemerintah China. Oleh karena itu, seringkali nama lembaga pemerintahan jarang muncul dalam banyak kesepakatan peminjam.

Ini dilakukan seperti agar neraca perekonomian China tetap terjaga. Selain itu, hal ini juga sangat berguna dalam menyembunyikan perjanjian rahasia dari pemerintah agar tidak tahu apa kesepakatan rahasia yang terjadi.

Melansir BBC, AidData telah menghitung utang yang tidak tercatat dalam pembukuan resmi pemerintah China yang mencapai Rp 5.503 miliar.

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Sementara itu, banyak kesepakatan pinjaman jangka pendek milik China yang menuntut aset tak biasa. Semakin meningkat, karena utang China menuntut untuk menjanjikan uang tunai dari penjualan sumber daya alam.

Seperti kesepakatan China dengan Venezuela, China menuntut agar Venezuela memberikan mata uang asing sebagai deposito. Itu mereka dapay dari penjualan minyak yang secara langsung masuk ke rekening bank yang bisa pemerintah China kendalikan. Risikonya, jika pembayaran utang lewat tenggat waktu yang sudah di sepakati, maka China dapat segera menarik uang dari rekening tersebut.

“Tampaknya ini benar-benar seperti strategi roti dan mentega. Dimana mereka memberikan sinyal bagi para peminjam bahwa ‘kami lah bosnya'” kata Brad Parks.

“Apakah China pintar? atau cerdik?” tanya Anna Gelpern, seorang professor hukum Georgetown yang terlibat dalam penelitian AidData awal tahun ini.

“Menurut kesimpulan yang kami dapat, China adalah negara terkuat dan seperti lintah darat dalam kontrak ini. Mereka sangat melindungi kepentingan mereka sendiri,” tukas Anna Gelpern.

Baca juga: ‘Pria ini sengaja menularkan sesuatu atas sepengetahuannya’

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